Sunday, July 15th, 2018

VI. Writing Your Paper


  1. Writing Your First Draft
    1. Write freely and don’t worry about making mistakes. Just get your ideas down on paper.
    2. Double-space your first draft so it’s easy to edit.
    3. You don’t have to worry about your introduction and conclusion at this point…you can write those sections after the body of your paper is finished.

  2. Revising Your First Draft
    1. Write simply and directly.
    2. Spelling, Grammar, and Punctuation
      1. Spelling correctly is very important. Buy a dictionary or use one in the library.
      2. Correct grammar is also very important. Don’t rely on the grammar checkers in word processing software. They are generally not very reliable. If you feel uneasy with your grammar invest in (or check out at the library) a guide to grammar:
        1. The Little Brown Handbook by Jane E. Aaron. Call no.: PE1112b.A23 2001
        2. Woe is I: the grammarphobe’s guide to better English in plain English by Patricia T. O’Connor. Call No.: PE1112 b .O28 1996
        3. Rules of thumb : a guide for writers by Jay Silverman, Elaine Hughes, Diana Roberts Wienbroer. Call no.: PE1408 b .S4878 1993
        4. Writing, a concise handbook by James A.W. Heffernan, John E. Lincoln. Call no.: PE1408 b .H439 1996
        5. Simon & Schuster quick access reference for writers by Lynn Quitman Troyka. Call no.: PE1408 b .T6964 1997
        6. Basic grammar and usage by Penelope Choy, James McCormick. Call no: PE1112 b .C48 1992
        7. The elements of grammar by Margaret D. Shertzer. Call no.: PE1112 b .S54 1986
        8. College writing skills, with readings by John Langan. Call no.: PE1408 b .L3178 1997
        9. You can also refer to the following site for tips on grammar and punctuation: Ted’s Punctuation Guide by Ted M. Montgomery
    3. Some things to really avoid:
      1. Avoid wordiness. (See Deadwood Phrases or Plague Words and Phrases for more detail.)
      2. Use the correct language for your audience and don’t use unnecessarily complicated words.
      3. Use apostrophes correctly.
      4. Join clauses well with conjunctions.
      5. Make sure:
        1. verbs agree with their subjects.
        2. pronouns agree with their antecedent.
        3. participles don’t dangle.
        4. tenses are consistent. In literary papers, write in present tense; in history papers write in the past or simple past (preterite) tense (if you are writing about past events). The main narrative should be in a consistent tense. Events that will happen in the future should be in the future tense, and events that have happened in the past should be in the past tense.
      6. Don’t:
        1. use unnecessary commas. Place commas before conjunctions if the conjunction introduces an independent clause. There is no comma if the clause is dependent.
        2. write run-on sentences.
        3. use double negatives.
        4. use sentence fragments.
        5. use split infinitives.
        6. use cliches.
      7. Verb Usage
        1. Use active voice. The subject performs the action and the object receives the action or is acted upon, in active sentences. EX: The cat bit Tommy. or Suzy threw
          the ball.
        2. Avoid passive tense when possible because it is boring. This is important, whether in narration or in dialogue. In passive sentences, the subject receives the action and the object performs the action. EX: Tommy was bitten by the cat. or The ball was thrown by Suzy. A simple way to check your paper for passive tense is to use the FIND command (in the EDIT menu) for the words was, has, or had. These words frequently modify passive verbs.
        3. In general, avoid excessive or inappropriate use of the subjunctive tense (use of would and/or would have). EX: After his first term, President Clinton would earn a second term. or If you followed my directions, you would have arrived on time.

  3. The introduction and conclusion should be easy to write after you have written the body of your paper, but here are some tips that may make it go more smoothly for you:
    1. Your introduction should be one to three paragraphs long. State the thesis (the overall point or topic of the paper) in the first paragraph in one or two sentences and don’t go into detail. Provide any background information your reader needs to know in the first and/or second paragraphs. In the final paragraph of the introduction, list the aspects of the topic that are covered in the paper.
    2. In the conclusion, never introduce any new information. Paraphrase the thesis/main point of the paper, wrap up any loose ends (if there are any), and briefly summarize the conclusions of the paper. Here is also where you can emphasize the importance of the topic and the significance of your conclusions.

  4. Format and Bibliography/Works Cited List
    1. It is a good idea to begin a working bibliography when you start searching for sources. Keep a detailed running record of each item you consult. Even if you don’t check every book out of the library or make a hard copy of each article, you might discover later that you would like to look at an item again. See Style Guides & Citing Sources for more information.
    2. Be sure to write your paper in the format assigned by your professor. Some formats that are frequently used are:
      1. APA Citation Style Resources (American Psychological Association)
      2. MLA Citation Style Resources (Modern Language Association)

    3. When in doubt, CITE YOUR SOURCES.

  5. Proofread, proofread, proofread.
  6. And get someone else to proofread your work for you, if you can. Use the spell check on your word processor, but watch out for its tendency to make mistakes with homonyms, such as to, too, & two; here & hear; or there, their, & they’re.