Tuesday, June 27th, 2017

Information Literacy & Research


“Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content and extend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over their own learning. An information literate individual is able to:1

  • Determine the extent of information needed
  • Access the needed information effectively and efficiently
  • Evaluate information and its sources critically
  • Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base
  • Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose
  • Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally

Information Literacy and Higher Education

Developing lifelong learners is central to the mission of higher education institutions. By ensuring that individuals have the intellectual abilities of reasoning and critical thinking, and by helping them construct a framework for learning how to learn, colleges and universities provide the foundation for continued growth throughout their careers, as well as in their roles as informed citizens and members of communities. Information literacy is a key component of, and contributor to, lifelong learning. Information literacy competency extends learning beyond formal classroom settings and provides practice with self-directed investigations as individuals move into internships, first professional positions, and increasing responsibilities in all arenas of life. Because information literacy augments students’ competency with evaluating, managing, and using information, it is now considered by several regional and discipline-based accreditation associations as a key outcome for college students.

For students not on traditional campuses, information resources are often available through networks and other channels, and distributed learning technologies permit teaching and learning to occur when the teacher and the student are not in the same place at the same time. The challenge for those promoting information literacy in distance education courses is to develop a comparable range of experiences in learning about information resources as are offered on traditional campuses. Information literacy competencies for distance learning students should be comparable to those for “on campus” students.

Incorporating information literacy across curricula, in all programs and services, and throughout the administrative life of the university, requires the collaborative efforts of faculty, librarians, and administrators. Through lectures and by leading discussions, faculty establish the context for learning. Faculty also inspire students to explore the unknown, offer guidance on how best to fulfill information needs, and monitor students’ progress. Academic librarians coordinate the evaluation and selection of intellectual resources for programs and services; organize, and maintain collections and many points of access to information; and provide instruction to students and faculty who seek information. Administrators create opportunities for collaboration and staff development among faculty, librarians, and other professionals who initiate information literacy programs, lead in planning and budgeting for those programs, and provide ongoing resources to sustain them.” See the complete Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education 1.

  1. About UAHT Library worksheet

    1. UAHT Library’s Web Site provides access to:
    2. UAHT Library’s Collections include:

      • Over 13,000 books in our print collection including bestseller and juvenile books.
      • Approximately 100 research databases providing access to millions of online journals, magazine & newspaper articles as well as thousands of online books. Click on Databases A to Z for Articles from the library’s home page. Off-campus access requires logging in with the library’s username & password
      • Audio books (on CD, cassette tape and online)
      • Informational & Educational videos (DVD &VHS)
      • Popular movies & documentaries videos (DVD &VHS)
    3. Use the Library From Off-Campus

      Go to the library’s web site to use the online research databases that will give you access to the full-text of online journal, magazine, and newspaper articles, as well as online books.

    4. Library Computers & Wireless Access

      • Student computers in the Library provide access to the Internet; WEBBER, MY UACCH, Email, MS Office (Word, PowerPoint, Excel, ACCESS), and HAWKES.
      • You can also bring your laptop and access the Internet via our wireless network.
    5. Need Help with Your Research Assignment?

      • Stop by the Library’s Information Desk to receive personalized, one-on-one, expert assistance in finding, evaluating, and citing resources for your upcoming research paper or project.
      • If you need in-depth assistance (30-60 minutes), you may also schedule a research consultation appointment with the Library Director, Marielle McFarland.
      • UAHT Library’s Web Site, offers a wide variety of How-To-Guides that include links to article databases, and credible web sites. These guides serve as an excellent starting point for your research needs and will save you valuable time and frustration in finding appropriate resources for your assignments.
    6. Circulation/Information Desk

      • The Library’s Circulation/Information Desk is where you check out, renew, and return books and other library materials (including reserve materials), ask reference questions or make other inquiries.
      • Standard check out period for books is 3 weeks. You may simultaneously check out an unlimited number of books.
      • You may check out up to 3 audio/visual items at one time. Check-out period is for 3 days.
    7. Borrowing Material
    8. Your UAHT Student ID serves as your library card. Students must have a student ID to borrow library material. Circulating materials include books, educational DVDs/videos and popular DVDs.

    9. In-Library Use Material
    10. Reference books, magazines, newspapers, and reserve materials can be used in the Library only.

    11. Borrowing From Other Libraries

      • Students may borrow materials from other libraries through InterLibrary Loan (ILL) if material is unavailable or insufficient at UAHT Library.
      • To request material through Interlibrary Loan, print and fill out an Interlibrary Loan Request Form (Book or Article) and turn it in at the Library’s Information Desk.
    12. Study Areas
    13. You are welcome to study on your own or in groups in the Library. Please help keep the noise level down.


    14. Printing & Copying

      • Each student may print up to 20 pages every day for free. Additional pages cost $.05 each.
      • Copies cost $.10 per page (2-sided pages are $20 each).
      • The copy machine accepts cash only – coins, $1 and $5 dollar bills (no credit/debit cards)
        and does give change. Library staff will be happy to assist you.
    15. Ask a Librarian
    16. Please contact UACCH Library for more information on any of our services or resources. Our staff will be more than happy to answer your questions and assist you in locating items/information, provide guidance in researching a topic, or assist you in using any of the print or electronic resources in the library.

  2. Off-campus Database Access

    UACCH library users may access the library databases from off campus. When you click on a database link from Databases A-Z or any other UACCH databases link, you will be prompted with a login screen. Use UACCH Library’s generic username and password to login; they are available in UACCH Library.

  3. Types of Information handout worksheet

    Primary Sources
    Primary sources provide first hand accounts or experiences of events. Information is generally presented in its original form, whether it is a work of literature or art, or an account of an event or experience, or original documents or research products such as interviews, speeches, questionnaires, letters, diaries, manuscripts, memoirs, etc. Includes books, periodicals, and web sites.

    Secondary Sources
    Secondary sources provide second hand accounts of events. These sources include materials that have been reported, analyzed, or interpreted by people who do not have first hand knowledge of an event and may be found in books or periodicals, or on web sites.

    Reference Books (Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Handbooks, Yearbooks)
    General and subject-specific reference books provide brief overviews or summaries on any given topic. They can include background information, factual data, key ideas, important dates, and concepts.

    Use:

    • If you know very little about your topic, reference sources are an excellent place to start research.

    How to Find:

    • Use the UAHT Library Catalog to find print titles on the shelves
    • Use e-Book databases such as CredoRef, EBSCOhost’s eBook Collection or Gale Virtual Reference to find online titles
    • Use the library’s research databases to find reference articles.
    • Use a search engine such as Yahoo or Google to find a reference resource on the Web.

    Examples:

    • Funk & Wagnall’s New World Encyclopedia
    • General Reference Center

    Circulating Books (Fiction & Nonfiction)
    Books typically provide an in-depth examination of any given topic, usually from a retrospective point of view. Most research-oriented books are works of non-fiction (e.g., textbooks). Fiction works include novels, short stories, and poetry.

    Use:

    • When you need historical and detailed information on a subject, such as the civil rights movement in the United States.
    • When you need to put your topic in context with other important issues.
    • When you need several points of view in one book such as collected critical essays on Shakespeare’s works.

    How to Find:

    • Use UACCH Library Catalog to find print titles on the shelves.
    • Use e-Book database services such as databases services such as EBSCOhost’s eBook Collection
    • Other library’s catalogs to request items through InterLibrary Loan.

    Examples:

    • Justice at War : Civil Liberties and Civil Rights During Times of Crisis
    • The Art of Shakespeare’s Sonnets (nonfiction)
    • The Lord of the Rings; The Da Vinci Code (fiction)

    Periodicals (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers)
    Journals, magazines, and newspapers published on a regular cycle throughout the year (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly), provide up-to-date information on the latest developments on various issues or current events and are usually from a contemporary point of view. Articles can be brief & general or in-depth & focused on a very specific or local topic.

    Use:

    • When you need up-to-date information about current issues, popular culture, or international, national and local events.
    • When you want to read various points of view or popular opinions (e.g., editorials, commentaries).
    • When you need scholarly articles or original research, need to find out what has been studied on your topic, or need references that point to other relevant research (journal articles).

    How to Find:

    • Use Journal Search to find full-text periodical titles that are available in print or online.
    • Use the library’s research databases to search for periodical articles on a specific topic.

    Examples:

    • Journal of Communication
    • Newsweek
    • Hope Star

    World Wide Web (Web Pages, Pictures, Music, Video)
    The Web allows you to access most types of information or multimedia on the Internet through a Web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla FireFox, or Google Chrome. One of the main features of the Web is the ability to quickly link to information. The Web contains information beyond plain text, including images, sound, music, and video. Since anyone can publish on the web, you need to carefully evaluate what you retrieve through search engines such as Google or Yahoo.

    Use:

    • To find current news and events.
    • Expert and popular opinions on various issues.
    • Company information
    • Information from all levels of government
    • Information and online resources provided through the UAHT Library

    How to Find:

    • Use search engines such as Google or Yahoo to find web pages and other multimedia on the Web

    Examples:

    • Wikipedia, CNN, MySpace, Ebay, Amazon

    Government Sources
    Government sources from all levels of government (international, national, state and local) provide both historical and current information, and statistical data.

    Use:

    • To find information on government and social issues
    • Historical or current data or statistics

    How to Find:

    • Use the UAHT Library Catalog.
    • Use the library’s research databases.
    • Use search engines such as Yahoo or Google.

    Examples:

    • Statistical Abstract of the United States
    • Occupational Outlook Handbook
    • National Center for Health Statistics

    1. The Information Cycle handout worksheet

      The Information Cycle is the progression of information created about a particular event. Timing is a large part of what makes a blog different from a scholarly article different from a book different from a newspaper article different from a magazine article, etc. Different types of material take different amounts of time to produce. Each type of material also has its own characteristics and caveats. If you understand The Information Cycle you will better understand what materials are available about an event or topic, and when they are or will be available.

      Information is written for:

      • different purposes – to inform, to persuade, to instruct, to entertain, etc.
      • different types of audiences – general, popular, juvenile, scholarly, professional, and
      • is presented in different formats.





      See the Information Cycle for Japan’s March 2011 tsunami below:

      The Information Cycle on the Day of…

      Social Media, Television, Internet, and Radio
      Moments before, during and immediately after the March 11, 2011 tsunami in Japan, witnesses Twittered, Facebooked and sent photos of the devastation around the world. Television, Internet and radio media also reported the event.

      Characteristics:

      • Can provide the most up-to-date information.
      • Explains the general details of an event.
      • Easy to understand.
      • Many formats, not just traditional articles – includes tweets, blogs, and Facebook posts.

      Caveats:

      • Occasionally inaccurate.
      • Primarily written by journalists (non experts).
      • Little analysis or insight.
      • Intended for a general audience, not for scholarly research.
      Where to Find:

      • Television
      • Radio
      • Social media
      • Google
      • Google News
      • Google Blogs
      Mar 11, 2011–8:41 AM
      The biggest earthquake to hit Japan in 140 years struck the northeast coast on Friday, triggering a 10-metre tsunami that swept away everything in its path.




      The Information Cycle during the week of…

      Newspapers
      The week the tsunami hit Japan, newspaper articles began describing the early details of all aspects of the disaster.

      Characteristics:

      • Longer, more detailed, and factual than immediate news sources.
      • Include quotes from experts.
      • Frequently include statistics or photographs.
      • Can provide a local or editorial perspective.
      • Provide some analysis and insight into the “why” of events.
      Caveats:

      • Primarily written by journalists (non experts).
      • Intended for a general audience.
      Where to Find:

      • Academic Search Elite
      • Newsstand
      • CNN
      • Google News
      March 12, 2011



      The Information Cycle during the week after…

      Popular Magazines
      As all of the facts of Japan’s tsunami were gathered, more detailed analysis began to be created. Popular and news magazines began to produce long form stories that discussed the impact of the event on society, culture, and public policy.

      Characteristics:

      • Include detailed reports of events, interviews, as well as opinions and analysis.
      • Offer perspectives on an event from particular groups or geared towards specific audiences.
      • Are written by a range of authors, from professional journalists, to essayists, to commentary by scholars or experts in the field.
      Caveats:

      • While often factual, information can reflect the editorial bias of a publication.
      • Are intended for a general audience or specific nonprofessional groups.
      Where to Find:

      • Popular magazines
      • Academic Search Elite
      • TOPICsearch
      March 28, 2011




      The Information Cycle Months After…

      Academic/Scholarly Journals
      Months after Japan’s tsunami, long, detailed articles describing the tsunami’s effect on all aspects of life began to be published. These articles were backed by the research, analysis, and the expert knowledge of professionals in their related fields.

      Characteristics:

      • Include detailed analysis, empirical research reports, and learned commentary related to the event.
      • Are often theoretical, carefully analyzing the impact of the event on society, culture, and public policy.
      • Are peer-reviewed. This editorial process ensures high credibility and accuracy.
      • Include detailed bibliographies.
      • Authored by experts.
      Caveats:

      • Typically very specific in topic.
      • Written in a highly technical language.
      • Are intended for other scholars and can be difficult to understand.
      • Are not quickly available after events take place.
      Where to Find:

      • Academic Search Elite
      • Many of the library’s other databases.
      • Google Scholar




      The Information Cycle A Year After…

      Books
      Books analyzing the impact of the tsunami were published about a year after the tsunami.

      Characteristics:

      • Provide in-depth coverage of an event, often expanding analysis from earlier academic research.
      • Often place an event into historical context.
      • Can provide detailed overviews of an event.
      • Can provide other relevant sources through bibliographies.
      Caveats:

      • Range from scholarly in-depth analyses of topics to popular books which provide general discussions and are not as well-researched.
      • Might have a bias or slant.
      • Credentials of authors can vary.
      • Are not quickly available after events take place.
      Where to Find:

      • Library Catalog
      • Google Books
      • e-Book Collection
      Catastrophe in Japan: The Earthquake and Tsunami Of 2011

      The Information Cycle Years After…

      Reference Books
      Years after Japan’s 2011 tsunami, the event will be well-known and encyclopedias, handbooks, and other reference sources will publish entries on the subject.

      Characteristics:

      • Considered established knowledge. Include factual information, often in the form of broad overviews and summaries of an event.
      • May include statistics and bibliographies.
      • Authored by scholars and specialists.
      Caveats:

      • Frequently not as detailed as books or journal articles.
      • Often intended for a more general audience, but may be of use to researchers, scholars, and professionals.
      Where to Find:

      • Credo Reference
      • General Reference Center Online
      • Library’s Reference section
      Front Cover
    2. Primary & Secondary Sources

    3. Primary Sources


      Materials which have not been interpreted by another person. Original document/writing created at or near the time an event occurred. Primary sources provide first hand accounts or experiences of events. Information is generally presented in its original form, whether it be a work of literature or art, or an account of an event or experience, or original documents or research products such as interviews, speeches, questionnaires, letters, diaries, manuscripts, memoirs, etc. Includes books, periodicals, and web sites.

      • Search online & print primary sources via the UAHT Library Catalog.
      • Search for online primary sources via the Library Databases.
      • Search the Internet for free primary sources.
      • Search the catalogs of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide for primary sources: WorldCat.


      Secondary Sources


      Secondary sources provide second hand accounts of events. These sources include materials that have been reported, analyzed, or interpreted by people who do not have firsthand knowledge of an event and may be found in books or periodicals, or on web sites.

      • Search online & print secondary sources via the UAHT Library Catalog.
      • Search for online secondary sources via the Library Databases.
      • Search the Internet for free primary sources.
      • Search the catalogs of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide for primary sources: WorldCat.

      Information Types

      Coverage/Use

      Retrieval Methods

      Reference books:

      • Almanacs
      • Dictionaries
      • Directories
      • Encyclopedias
      • Handbooks
      Provide overviews on any given topic. They can include background information, factual data, key ideas, important dates, and concepts. Can be general (e.g., TOPICsearch) or specialized (e.g., Health Source – Consumer Edition)
      When to use:

      • If you know very little about your topic, reference sources are an excellent place to start research.

      • Search for online & print encyclopedias via the UAHT Library Catalog.
      • Search online encyclopedias & other reference books via the library databases (e.g., CREDO Ref).
      • Search the Internet for free ready reference resources.
      • Browse the library’s reference shelves for print encyclopedias.


      Books Books cover virtually any topic, fact or fiction. Books typically provide an in-depth examination of the given topic, usually from a retrospective point of view. Most research-oriented books are works of non-fiction (e.g., textbooks). Fiction works include novels, short stories, and poetry. For research purposes, you will probably be looking for books that synthesize all the information on one topic to support a particular argument or thesis.
      When to use:

      • need historical or detailed information on a topic such as the civil rights movement in the United States.
      • need to put your topic in context with other important issues.
      • need summaries of research.
      • need to support an argument.
      • need several points of view in one book such as collected critical essays on Shakespeare’s works.

      • Search for online & print books via the UAHT Library Catalog.
      • Search for online books via the library databases (e.g., EBSCO eBooks Collection).
      • Search the Internet for free books out of copyright protection.
      • Search the catalogs of more than 10,000 libraries worldwide: WorldCat.


      Periodical articles:

      • Journals
      • Magazines
      • Newspapers
      Periodicals are published on a regular ongoing basis (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly). Journal, magazine, and newspaper articles tend to be more specific or about certain aspects of an issue compared to books. Periodicals provide up-to-date information on the latest developments on various issues or current events and are usually from a contemporary point of view. Articles can be brief & general or in-depth & focused in on a very specific or local topic.
      When to use:

      • need up-to-date information about current issues, popular culture, or international, national and local events.
      • need to read various points of view or popular opinions (e.g., editorials, commentaries).
      • need scholarly articles or original research.
      • need to find out what has been studied on your topic.
      • need references that point to other relevant research (journal articles).

      • Search for online & print periodical titles held by UAHT Library by using the Journal Search tool by Serial Solutions.
      • Search for online articles via the Library Databases.
      • Search the Internet for free articles (e.g., Find Articles; MagPortal.com).


      Government Documents Government sources from all levels of government (international, national, state and local) provide both historical and current information, and statistical data.
      When to use:

      • need information from various levels of government or on various social issues.
      • need historical or current data or statistics.

      • Search online & print secondary sources via the UAHT Library Catalog.
      • Search for government sources on the Internet (e.g., America’s Historical Documents, GPO Catalog).
      • Search the GPO Catalog


      World Wide Web:

      • web pages
      • images
      • music
      • videos
      The Web allows you to access most types of information or multimedia on the Internet through a Web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, AOL, or Netscape. One of the main features of the Web is the ability to quickly link to information. The Web contains information beyond plain text, including images, sound, music, and video. Since anyone can publish on the web, you need to carefully evaluate what you retrieve through search engines such as Yahoo and Google.
      When to use:

      • need news stories on current events.
      • need expert and popular opinions on various issues.
      • need company information.
      • need information from various levels of government.
      • need information and online resources provided through the UAHT Libraries

      • Use search engines such as Google or Yahoo to find web pages and other multimedia on the Web.
      • Other sources on the web include: Amazon, CNN, Wikipedia, etc

    4. Journals vs. Magazines
    5. Instructors often make assignments that require the use of articles from scholarly or professional trade journals. The terms peer-reviewed, refereed, academic, or research are also used. This handout provides general guidance in recognizing the difference between scholarly journal articles and popular magazine articles.

      SCHOLARLY JOURNALS

      • Articles are usually lengthy.
      • Articles usually have cited references at the end.
      • Usually illustrated by graphs, charts, or diagrams.
      • Written and signed by authorities in the field.
      • Purpose – Report on original research or experimentation.
      • Usually contain an abstract, problem statement, and methodology.
      • Use vocabulary requiring some knowledge of the subject.
      • Geared towards scholars, researchers, or professionals.
      • Often published by a professional organization or university.
      • Usually published on a monthly or quarterly basis.
      • Reviewed by panel or board.
      • Contain few advertisements.

      Examples of academic journals include: The Journal of Asian Studies, Arkansas Nursing News, Hemingway Review, JAMA

      POPULAR MAGAZINES

      Examples of popular magazines include: Time, People, Psychology Today, Newsweek, Woman’s Day, The New Yorker, Forbes, Popular Mechanics

      • Articles are usually short.
      • Articles seldom have cited references at the end.
      • Frequently illustrated with glossy or color photographs.
      • Usually written by staff or freelance writers. Many times unsigned.
      • Purpose – entertainment and information.
      • Contain no abstract, problem statement, or methodology.
      • Use simpler vocabulary.
      • Written for the general public.
      • Published by for-profit companies.
      • Usually published on a weekly or monthly basis.
      • Not peer-reviewed.
      • Contain many advertisements.
      UAHT Library provides access to millions of full text online articles through databases found on the Library’s web site, such as Academic Search Elite, Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Psychology Collection, Salem Literature, etc.

      Limit your database search results to scholarly articles by checking the box next to Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals.

    6. Using Internet or Web Sources
    7. The Internet is a worldwide network of computers. The World Wide Web (also called WWW, “the Net” or “the Web”) is an information system that links Internet documents and allows users to navigate through the Web, moving quickly and seamlessly from one source to another via Web links. Documents available on the Web can include text, sound, video, and images.

      One prevailing misconception is that everything is available on the Internet. As a matter of fact, only a small fraction of the world of information is available on the free Internet. Think of the Web as an iceberg. Anyone can see and access roughly one-third of the information available on the open Web for free, using popular search engines like Yahoo! or Google. Wikipedia articles, for example, are open Web resources that are available online to anyone who searches for them. In the illustration above, the area above the line represents the open Web, where anyone has easy access to free information.

      The other two-thirds of the information available on the Web is hidden from view and is known as the “deep Web.” The deep Web is where information is not free and is not included in popular search engine results. Library databases are deep Web subscription resources that are available online to authorized users, such as students enrolled UAHT. Books, journals, magazines, and other publications that are commercially available are usually not available for open access on the Internet. Thus, some of the most reliable information in existence must still be obtained from licensed library databases or traditional print sources. In the illustration above, the area underneath the line represents the deep Web, where it costs money to gain access to higher-quality, reliable information.

      The Internet is a great source for finding current news stories, government documents, statistics, working papers, conference proceedings, reports, etc. However, since there is no quality control on the Internet, you need to make sure you check the reliability of sources you find through search engines such as Google and Yahoo! . Review the Evaluate Sources section of this guide for criteria guidelines for evaluating resources.

  4. Finding Sources
    1. Online Search Strategies
      1. Identifying Search Terms
        Before you begin using a library database or search engine, it is a good idea to write down all the keywords and phrases that describe your topic or the information you are seeking. You should also write down any synonyms or related terms. These keywords and phrases can be your search terms.

        Example: Does television viewing encourage aggressive behavior in children?

        simple search: television AND “aggressive behavior” AND children

        complex search: (aggressive OR aggression OR fighting) AND (children OR adolescents)

      2. Subject Heading Search
        A subject search involves searching the subject headings used in a database. Most databases include subject headings that are assigned to each record.
        A list of subject headings, called a database thesaurus, ensures that all items about the same topic have uniform headings. Users can then retrieve all of the items on the same topic using one word or term, even when there may be several other ways to state the concept. By using the subject heading, you will retrieve every relevant item for your topic. Searching with a subject heading retrieves items ABOUT that particular topic, and it is a more precise search than a keyword search.

        Possible ways (synonyms) to state the topic ‘death penalty’ include:

        • Death Penalty
        • Electrocution
        • Capital Punishment
        • Hanging
        • Cruel and Unusual Punishment
        • Death Row
        • Lethal Injection

        In the Academic Search Elite database, the subject heading for death penalty is capital punishment, but another term may be used in other databases. Many databases use the Library of Congress Subject Headings. You may consult this resource online or check the database for a thesaurus.

      3. Keyword Search
        A keyword search retrieves words or phrases from the important fields of the database records. In most databases a keyword search finds words in fields that have descriptive content, such as author, article title, source title (book, journal, magazine, or newspaper, subject/descriptor terms, and abstract. In some databases, additional fields may be included in the keyword search. And in other databases, a keyword search will search everything in every record. Some keyword search engines allow you to specify which field(s) are to be searched.

        A keyword search usually retrieves more items than a subject search, but they may not all be relevant. The computer is looking for the exact word you typed, not for the meaning or context of the word.

        For example, a search on AIDS will retrieve items on…

        • aids for the hearing impaired
        • school aids
        • AIDS (the disease)

        A keyword search is the best method to use when:

        • You are beginning your research
        • You are searching for a new trend or concept
        • You are not sure of the correct subject heading
        • The database does not have subject headings
        • You are looking for specific factual information

        Some search tips:

        • Use only significant words, not common words, such as the, of, an, and that.
        • Avoid using phrases such as “people with diabetes”, or whole sentences, such as “How do people buy cigarettes if they are under 18?”
        Subject Heading Search          vs.          Keyword Search
        • Searches for subject or descriptor field only
        • Controlled vocabulary from thesaurus
        • High degree of relevancy
        • High precision, fewer results
        • Requires knowing, finding subject headings
        • May search multiple fields including subject, title, and abstract
        • May retrieve irrelevant items
        • Low precision, more results
        • Allows grouping terms to expand or narrow search
      4. Searching with Boolean Operators: AND, OR, NOT
        Boolean searching is based on a system developed by George Boole, a 19th century mathematician. Most online databases and Internet search engines support Boolean searching. The power of Boolean searching is based on connecting keywords with Boolean operators. The three basic operators are AND, OR and NOT. Here is how they work:
      5. AND
        Type AND between your keywords to narrow your search. The database or search engine will only retrieve those articles or web pages that contain both words. UsingAND will decrease the number or hits or articles or web pages in your result list.

        Note: Some databases and search engines (such as Google and Craigslist) allow you to type a plus sign (+) in front of a keyword when doing a basic search. This works the same as AND. Example: +school +crime

        Example: school AND crime

        OR
        Type OR between your keywords to broaden your search. The database or search engine will retrieve those articles or web pages that contain at least one of these words. Using OR will increase the number of articles or web pages in your result list (especially if not used in combination with AND or NOT). Use OR between keywords that are synonyms or have similar meanings.

        Example: baby OR infant


        NOT
        Type NOT before a keyword to exclude that keyword from your search. Using NOTwill decrease the number of articles or web pages in your result list. The best use of NOT is when you are searching for a keyword that may have multiple meanings.

        Example: saturn NOT car


        Combining Boolean Operators
        Use parentheses ( ) to keep combination searches in order. This is called nesting. In the example below, the database or search engine will retrieve articles or web pages that must contain the word law and at least one of the words in parentheses.

        Example: (ecstasy OR mdma) AND law

      6. Truncation and Wildcard
        Truncation, also known as stemming, uses a character such as asterisk (*) or question mark (?) at the end of a word, which allows you to search for a root form of a word and pick up any ending. Example: typing teen* will find teen, teens, teenage, teenager, teenagers.

        • Be careful not to end the stem or root of a word too early to retrieve too many results. Example: typing cat* will find cat, cats, catalog, catastrophe, catsup, etc.
        • Different databases use different symbols to truncate words. However, most of our popular databases, such Academic Search Elite, are using asterisk (*) as their truncation symbol. If in doubt, check a database’s “Help” screen for the truncation symbol.
        • Some search engines, such as Yahoo! and Google, automatically use truncation without you having to type a truncation symbol.
      7. Wildcard Symbols
        Wildcard symbols can be typed in place of a letter or letters within a keyword if you are not sure of the spelling or if there are different forms of the root word. Example: wom?n will find both women and woman. Note: Again, check the Help or Tips links available on most library databases and Internet search engines to verify the wildcard symbol that should be used (usually an asterisk (*) or question mark (?) ).
      8. Exact Phrase Searching
        To look for an exact phrase, use quotation marks (” “) around the keywords. Example: “attention deficit disorder”
    2. Searching the Databases to Find the Information You Need
    3. A database is an organized collection of online records in a standardized format that can be stored and accessed in a variety of ways. UAHT Library has a large collection of full text journals and periodicals that are available online through approximately 65 databases. The databases are collections of published articles, books and other resources that cover the spectrum of college students’ research subjects. Some of the databases provide access to general reference collections and others are specially designed, subject-specific databases: business, history, nursing, etc. The databases are the best place to find scholarly information for your research and they can be used with relative ease from any online computer. You can limit your searches to full-text only, so, you can immediately print, read, or save the best resources you find. You can also send articles to your e-mail account.

      Below, you can see what the EBSCO databases’ interface looks like. Other databases’ search screens and search processes are very similar to this one.

      Database Searching

      Enter your search terms in the Search Box on the Basic or Advanced Search screen.

      In the Limit your results section, you can limit your search results by:

      • full text,
      • publication date,
      • document type,
      • publication title,
      • scholarly journals,
      • publication type,
      • article length, and image types.

      Choose Databases

      To search multiple databases, click on the Choose Databases link to see a menu of all available EBSCOhost databases.

      Result List

      Click the Search button to see your Result List.

      The Search Box will be displayed above the Result List. Your search terms, limiters and expanders are retained and you can revise your search, as needed.

      Detailed Record:

      Click on an article’s title to see its Detailed Record or click on its PDF Full Text or HTML Full Text link to see the full text of the article.
      PDF Full Text

      HTML Full Text

      Citations

      On right side of the Detailed Record there is a Cite link that will show you how to cite the article in your works cited list.

      General Databases:
      Start your research with a comprehensive general database such as Academic Search Elite, MasterFILE Premier, or TOPICsearch. After you get comfortable with the general databases move on to search the subject specific databases.

      Databases A to Z
      If you are already know the name of the database you want to search, go to the library’s home page at http://libraryweb.uacch.edu/ When the library’s home page appears, hover over and select the Databases tab; find the database you want to search and click on its title. The database’s basic search screen will open and you can execute your search.

      Databases by Subject
      Go to the library’s home page at http://libraryweb.uacch.edu/ Hover over the Databases tab and select Databases by Subject. Select the broad subject area of your topic to see a list of databases that cover your topic. Read the descriptions for the databases and search the ones that provide access to type of
      information you need.

      Library Databases vs. Google
      While there are newspapers and other services, like Google Scholar, available free online, the library databases are services to which we pay to have access. Most of the articles contained in the library databases cannot be found through with search engines.

      FAQs

      What is a library database?
      A library database, such as Academic Search Complete and MasterFILE Premier, is an organized collection of electronic information that allows a user to search for a particular topic, article, or book in a variety of ways (e.g., keyword, subject, author, title). Library databases contain thousands to millions of records or articles. The library purchases subscriptions to these databases (similar to purchasing a subscription to a magazine or newspaper).

      What types of resources are indexed by library databases?
      – scholarly journal, popular magazine, and newspaper articles
      – reference materials (e.g., entries from dictionaries, encyclopedias, etc.)
      – books, pamphlets, government documents, etc.

      What types of information do library databases provide for these resources?
      – All databases provide citation information about the items they index. A citation typically consists of: author’s name, title of article, title of the book, journal, magazine, and newspaper, publisher, date of publication.
      – Many library databases also provide abstracts of the items they index. An abstract is a brief summary of the article.
      – Many library databases also provide the full text (the entire article or book) for items they index.

      How do library databases differ in what they cover?
      Some library databases are general – meaning that they index items from many subject areas or academic disciplines. If you’re not sure which database to choose, you may want to start your research with our most comprehensive and generaldatabase, Academic Search Complete. Most library databases index items from a specific subject area or academic discipline (e.g., business, health, history, psychology). To locate a database by subject, browse our Subject List of Research Databases.

      How do I access and use the library databases?
      The library databases can be accessed from the library’s home page by clicking on Databases A-Z or Databases by Subjectunder the Find Information section. If you are accessing the databases from off-campus, you will be prompted to login with UAHT Library’s generic login information which is available in the library. The databases are accessible 24/7. If you need help in using the databases, schedule a one-on-one research consultation with a librarian or sign up for a free library workshop.

      Can’t I get the same articles found in a library database by just Googling it?
      In most cases, no. Most of the information retrieved from the open web by using Internet search engines, such as Google, is free. library databasescontain copyrighted, licensed, proprietary information that is not free. JSRCC Library pays yearly subscription fees for its databases just like it pays yearly subscription fees for its print journals, magazines, and newspapers.

      What’s wrong with just Googling?
      There’s nothing wrong with using Google or another search engine to find information on the web. Just keep in mind that most of the information retrieved from the open web hasn’t been evaluated. It could be inaccurate, biased, or it might not be current. Also, the authors of web sites might not have the same credentials as the authors of articles found in the library databases. You will need to more carefully evaluate information retrieved on the open web. All of the articles found in the library databases have already been evaluated for accuracy and credibility by discipline-specific experts and publishers.

      My instructor told our class we can’t use any (or only a few) Internet sources. Can I still use the library databases?
      Yes. Library databases use the Internet as a delivery system but they are not considered the Internet. In most cases, your instructor means that they don’t want you using web sites or web pages found on the open web through Internet search engines such as Google. Most of the published resources found in the library databases are not available on the open web. Always clarify with your instructors what they actually mean when the class is told no (or few) Internet sources.


    4. Guide to Destiny, the Library’s Catalog

      1. Go into the Library Catalog
      2. Click on the Catalog tab to go to the Basic Search Screen.
      3. Perform a basic search of the catalog by:
        1. entering  your search terms in the Find search box , and
        2. clicking on the appropriate search button (Keyword, Title, Author, or Subject)
      4. The Keyword button will perform the broadest search and return the most items that match your search terms.Your search results will be a list of brief records. Each brief record will provide the title, call number, author, and availability for each item that matches your search terms.
      5. A book is already checked out if the catalog states 0 of 1 available. Library Staff can tell you when the book is due to be turned in.
    5. The Library’s Catalog is primarily used to find items in the Library’s collection. It can be accessed from the first page on the Library homepage’s or from the Library’s Quick Links menu.


      1st page of Destiny Library Catalog

      Basic Search
      screen in Destiny

      Search Results

    6. How to Read Call Numbers
    7. Libraries use classification systems to organize the books, DVDs, etc. on their shelves. Most public libraries use the Dewey Decimal Classification System (DDC) and most academic libraries (including UAHT Library) use the Library of Congress Classification System (LC).

      These classification systems allow each book and video in the library to be assigned a unique call number. A call number is like an address; it indicates where the book is located on the library shelves.

      Anatomy of a Call Number

    8. Searching for eBooks
      The default search screen for eBooks on EBSCOhost is basic search. The eBook Collection landing page displayed below is available by clicking the eBooks link in the top toolbar.

      eBooks on EBSCOhost Home screen
      There are several ways to search for eBooks on EBSCOhost:

      • Perform a keyword search of the eBooks database using the Find field.
      • Browse by Category by selecting a category from the column on the left.
      • View the Latest Added eBooks using the left and right arrows.
      • Click View All to view a  result list of all latest added eBooks.
      • View Featured eBooks using the left and right arrows or
      • click View All to view a result list of all Featured eBooks.
      To search for eBooks:
      Enter your search terms in the Find field and click the Search buttoneBooks Search
      A Result List of eBooks related to your search terms is displayed.eBooks Result List

      • Click the eBook Full Text link to read the book in the eBook Viewer tool.
      • Click the Table of Contents link to view the chapters of an eBook.
      • You can go directly to a chapter in the eBook Viewer tool by clicking on a hyperlinked chapter.
      • Note: Sections in the Table of Contents with a plus sign (+) can be expanded further by clicking the plus sign.

      eBook Detailed Record

      • A Detailed Record can be viewed by clicking an eBook title in the Result list.
      • From the Detailed Record, you can read the eBook using the links in the left column.
      • From the right column, you can print, email, save, or export the record, as well as add the details about the eBook to your folder.

      Detailed Record 1

      • At the bottom of the Detailed Record, you can view Search Terms Within this eBook and the Table of Contents (-) in the upper left corner of the section.
      • Search Terms Within this eBook: Displays the most relevant sections of the eBook in which your search terms appear in the text.
      • Table of Contents: Displays the Table of Contents for the eBook you are viewing. Clicking on a hyperlinked chapter opens the chapter in the eBook Viewer tool.

      eBook Viewer

      • eBooks can be read online in the eBook Viewer by clicking the eBook Full Text link on the Result List or Detailed Record.

      eBook Viewer Tool


      Included in the Tools column on the right,
      are tools that allow you to search within the text of the eBook and save a note on the eBook in your My EBSCOhost folder.

      • Search Within eBookClick the magnifying glass icon to search for terms within the eBook.
      • Create a Note iconClick the note icon to create a note about the eBook or a page of the eBook and save it to yourpersonal folder.
      • Dictionary IconClick the dictionary icon to search for definitions of words in the eBook you are reading.

      Using the eBook Viewer Toolbar

      Viewer Toolbar

      • Fit Page to Viewport: Click the icon to fit the entire page into the viewport.
      • Fit Page Width: Click the icon to fit the page by width in the viewing area.
      • Fit Page: Click the icon to view the entire page in the viewing area.
      • Zoom Out: Click the icon to zoom out on the page.
      • Zoom In: Click the icon to zoom in on the page.

      Viewer Toolbar

      • Location Slider: Drag the location slider right or left to go to a specific page of the eBook. Theleft and right arrows on either side of the slider bar take you to the beginning or end of the eBook. The page number updatesin the Page Navigation box as you drag the location slider.
      • Page Navigation: Use the page navigation arrows to move up or down one page at a time or enter a pagenumber in the field provided and click Go.

      Creating a Note on eBooks

      The Notetaking feature assists with your research by allowing you to take notes on eBooks and save them to your My EBSCOhost folder for later viewing.  To use the Notetaking feature in EBSCOhost:

      • click the Notes icon in the toolbar from the page of the eBook on which you would like to leave a note.
      • Click the + New Note button that appears in the Notes area. If there are existing notes, they appear in a list in the Notes area.

      Creating Notes

      • Note: Click the Sign In link to save your note to your personal My EBSCOhostfolder account.
      • Enter your note text in the field provided and click the Save button. You can adjust how the textappears in your note using the Bold, Italics, and Underline buttons above the text field.

      Creating Notes

      • Your saved note appears in the Notes list.

      Creating Notes

      • Click the Note title to edit the text.
      • Hover your pointer over the note to either Delete or view the page number of the note.
      • Click the Close Notes Icon in the upper-left corner to close the Notes area.

    9. Find Full Text Journal Articles Online
      UAHT Library has a large collection of full text journals and periodicals that are available online through approximately 65 databases. The databases are collections of published articles, books and other resources that cover the spectrum of college students’ research subjects. Some of the databases provide access to general reference collections and others are specially designed, subject-specific databases: business, history, nursing, etc.  The databases are the best place to find scholarly information for your research and they can be used with relative ease from any online computer. You can limit your searches to full-text only, so, you can immediately print, read or save the best resources you find. You can also send articles to your e-mail account. If you find a specific item that is not available in full text online, you may request it through Interlibrary Loan

      Below, you can see what the EBSCO databases basic search screen looks like.  Other databases’ search screens and search processes are very similar to this one:

      To create a Basic Search:

      1. Enter your search terms in the Find field on the Basic Search screen.
      2. Click the Search Options link, if you would like to use any of the optional Limiters
        or Expanders. To close the Search Options, click the link again.
      3. Basic Search Screen with Search Options Available

      4. Select a specific search mode, such as “Find all of my search terms,” or “SmartText Searching.”
      5. Apply Limiters such as Full Text or Publication type; or use search options that expand your search, such as “Apply related words.”
      6. Click the Search button. The Result List displays.
      7. Result List Screen
      8. The search field is displayed above the Result List. Your search terms, limiters and expanders are retained. To revise your search, you can click the Search Options link under Limit your results.
      9. To see the full text of an article, click on the HTML Full Text or PDF Full Text link.

    10. Evaluating Sources
      A crucial step for a successful research paper is to evaluate the potential information sources and select the best information that suits your topic. Ask yourself the following questions about your sources:

      Criteria for Evaluating Sources:

      What? What does the work cover? Is it relevant to my topic? If an abstract is available, read it. Scan the full text and look at the thesis, statement and conclusion.
      When? When was the work written? Is the
      information up to date enough for the topic chosen or do you need historical information
      Check the publication date. In fields such as medicine, science & technology, currency is important. In fields such as history & literature, older materials may be just as valuable as newer ones.
      Who? Who is the author or sponsor? Type the author’s name in Google.com and see if you can retrieve some background information about the author.
      Why? Why was the work written? What was its purpose, to inform or to persuade? What was thebias/perspective/ motivation? Check who publishes or sponsors the source.
      How? How was the work written? Was it written at a level you can understand and use

      Use the following chart, to help you decide if the websites you find are appropriate to use for your assignments:

      1. Purpose: Determine whether the main purpose of the site is to inform or to persuade (advocate for a cause).
      2. Author: The best sites are produced by those who have appropriate education, training, or experience to write with authority on the topic. Check site documents or external sources to find out more about the author.
      3. Content:
        • Bias: Consider whether content seems biased. Does the author have a “vested interest” in the topic? Look for documentation of claims and a balanced point of view.
        • Coverage: Shop around for the best source. You can compare the page to others on the same topic to see which provides better coverage.
        • Currency: If you are looking for the most current information on a topic, be sure to determine when information was added.

      4. Recognition: Also try to determine whether the site has been recognized as exemplary by others linking to it, tagging or citing it.

      By net.TUTOR © 1997-2008, The Ohio State University Libraries http://liblearn.osu.edu/tutor/

    11. Wikipedia
    12. ans unicode’; color: bla

Many thanks to University Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College Library and Temple University Libraries for some of the images & information used in this guide.

1Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education.” Association of College and Research Libraries,
         American Library Association, 1997-2012. Web. 8 Mar 2012.